What is consumer behavior in marketing?
In marketing, understanding of consumer behavior has become very important for companies.Consumer behavior refers to the study, which analyzes how consumers make decisions about their wishes, needs, purchases or react to a product, service or organization.It is very important to understand the behavior of consumers to analyze the behavior of potential consumers in terms of a new product or a new service.It is also very useful for companies to identify opportunities that have not yet been served.
An example of the aspect of consumer behavior is the change in eating habits that dramatically increased the demand for gluten -free products.Companies that identified this gap in the market produced gluten -free products and also touched this market aspect.
On the other hand, companies that could not monitor consumer behaviorCustomer selection.
Definition of consumer behavior
Consumer behavior can be defined as the study of mental, physical and social actions when individuals buy, use and reject products, services, ideas and practices.In other words, consumer behavior is the study of consumersPurchase decisionAnd which factors that support or influence these decisions.
According to the marketers, it is easier to see which product is on request and which is out of date so that marketing strategies buy a certain product or a certain service compared to another convincing reason for a consumer.
"The purchase behavior of end users - individuals and families who buy goods and services for personal consumption," Philip Kotler
Factor that affects consumer behavior
Understanding how consumer behavior affects marketing makes it important to understand the factors that influence consumer behavior and include:
Consumer behavior is influenced by cultural factors such as social class, buyer and subcultur culture.There are three types of cultural factors that include social class, culture and subculture.Culture can vary according to region, different groups and even countries.
Cultural changesThey are always important for marketers, regardless of whether new products or existing products with new resources and properties are sold.For examples, cultural changes in health and suitability have finally created enormous demand for training equipment, low calories and organic food and other fitness services.This cultural change has strongly influenced consumer behavior worldwide, i.e. America, England and Europe and many parts of the world.People go to the gym and love organic and healthy food.
Culture is the combination of subculturesIf you are Muslim, Hindu or Christian, your buying behavior is influenced by different subcultures.This affects your selection and preferences such as food, clothing, career goals and leisure activities.
Another cultural factor is the social classThis can influence the consumer's buying behavior in different parts of the world.For example, in the western world, the deep and top can have the same buying behavior.In other countries such as the luxury class of India, luxury cars, devices and devices tend to buy personal care products.But people in the low class cannot spend money on these purchases.
Social factors strongly influence the buying behavior of the consumer.
Social reference.For example, I absolutely needed a laptop last month.I went to a nearby market and bought a MacBook Pro laptop.Which factors influence my purchase decision and why I bought MacBook Pro.It was because my closest friend already has the same brand and it has and it has it it it is very satisfied with this product.
Family.The family plays an important role in the decision -making process.For example, if you are a married person, you always prefer the products that the husband and wife would benefit.
Papel a status social.Let us understand the role and social status and how this affects consumer behavior.For example, they are the CFO of a manager, they are someone, husband and father.People.
Personal factors influence buying decisions and include age, economic situation and work.In order to take personal factors into account, buying behavior is also influenced by habits, opinions and interests as well as other personal problems.
The phases of the human life cycle are another exampleHere, marketing specialists are aimed at markets based on the human life cycle.You will address vivid colors, high music and fast food.A young couple prefers to buy a retirement plan and secure their future.
Profession and economic circumstances.A occupation of the person affects the consumer's decision when buying goods and services.For example, if you are a blue worker, prefer to buy more work clothes.If you are an office worker, tend to do it to do it. Buy Smart Clothing.Different types of companies that specialize in the production of products based on the professional group.For example, a software house develops various software for accountants, lawyers, retailers and engineers.
Marketing experts observe exactly the personal income, the economic rate and buyer interest.Your marketing mix decisions are based on economic indicators.For example, the price for Nikon D-5 Professional Camera is superior to $ 6000.You can only buy this camera if you have been enough savings or credit power lately.
lifestyleIt means how a person lives in a society.For example, they live in an elegant area and people have expensive watches, branded clothing and luxury cars.You have to keep your status and image.
Psychological factors that influence the purchase decision are perception, motivation and beliefs and attitudes.Every consumer will react to the marketing message based on his attitudes and perceptions.
Motivation.People have different needs at a time.Some needs are organic, i.e. hunger, thirst and others are psychological, ie recognition, self -esteem and belonging.If a need reaches a certain degree of intensity, it becomes a reason.According to Philip Kotler, one reason is a necessity that has the authority to steer the person to seek satisfaction.
Maslov's hierarchy of needs also known asMaslow's theory was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943.The theory of this Maslow is based on human motivation.It is in the form of pyramid and has an approach from bottom to top.According to this hierarchy, there are five levels of humans.
- Psychological needsThey consist of basic human needs such as water, food and sleep.
- Safety needsrepresent the physical security of people such as personal, emotional and financial security
- Social affiliation and needsconsist of love, friendship needs
- Self-esteemThese needs are looking for self -response, recognition and social status
- Auto-UpdateIt is the need for growth, development and personal fulfillment.
Freud's theory of motivation.This theory shows us that unconscious psychological forces such as emotions and wishes form the individual behavior.These are three factors, ID, Superego and ego.
Consumer behavior models
Through observation and research, there were several models that also explain the buying behavior of consumers and include black box, personal variables and complex models.
- Black Box -Modell:This model is based on an external stimulus response, which means that one point triggers the spirit of the consumer to make a purchase decision that is influenced by various factors such as samples, marketing messages, advertising campaigns, availability and product price.
- Personal variables:If a consumer is influenced by the personal variable model, decisions are based on internal factors.Internal factors can include belief systems, goals, traditions, personal opinions or similar internal motivators.
- Complex model:The complex model includes external and internal variables.
How to study consumer behavior
Several factors influence consumer behavior and there are some methods for examining the consumer.These methods include:
- Research:Research can be carried out by phone, on the Internet or the staff.Research should avoid the open question and contain multiple -choice questions so that the answers can be easily given.
- Focus groups:This includes the hosting of a group of different types of customers to discuss a product type and to understand the reasons why customers buy certain brands.This should contain open questions and enable the participants to try a new brand and write their opinions.
- Box:This requires obtaining Store statistics or company centers.Companies should concentrate in a certain type of product and determine whether the product is bought more than often over a certain period of time compared to other periods.was selected on the other.